Ozone occurs in two layers of the atmosphere. The layer closest to the Earth’s surface is the troposphere. Here, ground-level or “bad” ozone is an air pollutant that is harmful to breathe and it damages crops, trees and other vegetation. It is a main ingredient of urban smog.
Similarly, what are the sources of ozone pollution?
Ground level or “bad” ozone is not emitted directly into the air, but is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight. Ground level ozone can also have harmful effects on sensitive vegetation and ecosystems.
What are the harmful effects of ozone?
Breathing ozone can trigger a variety of health problems including chest pain, coughing, throat irritation, and airway inflammation. It also can reduce lung function and harm lung tissue. Ozone can worsen bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma , leading to increased medical care . Learn more about health effects.
What does ozone do to your body?
When inhaled, ozone can damage the lungs. Relatively low amounts of ozone can cause chest pain, coughing, shortness of breath and, throat irritation. It may also worsen chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma as well as compromise the ability of the body to fight respiratory infections.
How is the good ozone produced?
Stratospheric ozone is formed naturally by chemical reactions involving solar ultraviolet radiation (sunlight) and oxygen molecules, which make up 21% of the atmosphere. In the first step, solar ultraviolet radiation breaks apart one oxygen molecule (O2) to produce two oxygen atoms (2 O) (see Figure Q2-1).
Is ozone toxic?
Whether in its pure form or mixed with other chemicals, ozone can be harmful to health. When inhaled, ozone can damage the lungs. Relatively low amounts of ozone can cause chest pain, coughing, shortness of breath and lung irritation.
Where does bad ozone come from?
Ozone is a colorless gas found in the air we breathe. Ozone can be good or bad depending on where it occurs: Ozone occurs naturally in the Earth’s upper atmosphere (the stratosphere), where it shields the Earth from the sun’s ultraviolet rays. At ground-level, ozone is an air pollutant that can harm human health.
Where is the ozone found?
The ozone layer is mainly found in the lower portion of the stratosphere from approximately 20 to 30 kilometres (12 to 19 mi) above earth, though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically.
What compounds destroy ozone?
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other halogenated ozone depleting substances (ODS) are mainly responsible for man-made chemical ozone depletion. The total amount of effective halogens (chlorine and bromine) in the stratosphere can be calculated and are known as the equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC).
What are the major sources of particulate matter?
Particulate Matter (PM) Sources. Components of particulate matter (PM) include finely divided solids or liquids such as dust, fly ash, soot, smoke, aerosols, fumes, mists and condensing vapors that can be suspended in the air for extended periods of time.
What are elevated levels of ozone?
Ozone is a toxic air pollutant that is a concern for people’s health when levels in outdoor are high. Ozone is the principal component of the mixture of air pollutants known as “smog” that is produced from the action of sunlight on air contaminants from automobile exhausts and other sources.
What is ozone?
Ozone is the unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES.
What is the source of the ozone?
Ozone is a colorless gas formed through a complex series of photochemical reactions involving sunlight and heat. It is not emitted directly into the air in significant quantities, but instead is formed from these directly released “precursor” pollutants: reactive organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen.
What is ozone gas made of?
Ozone is a gas made up of three oxygen atoms (O3). It occurs naturally in small (trace) amounts in the upper atmosphere (the stratosphere). Ozone protects life on Earth from the Sun’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
What are four health risks of ozone exposure?
Make it more difficult to breathe deeply and vigorously.
Cause shortness of breath, and pain when taking a deep breath.
Cause coughing and sore or scratchy throat.
Inflame and damage the airways.
Aggravate lung diseases such as asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis.
Where does the thinning of the ozone layer occur?
When CFCs reach the stratosphere, the ultraviolet radiation from the sun causes them to break apart and release chlorine atoms which react with ozone, starting chemical cycles of ozone destruction that deplete the ozone layer. One chlorine atom can break apart more than 100,000 ozone molecules.
What causes the hole in the ozone?
Ozone depletion occurs when chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons—gases formerly found in aerosol spray cans and refrigerants—are released into the atmosphere (see details below). CFCs and halons cause chemical reactions that break down ozone molecules, reducing ozone’s ultraviolet radiation-absorbing capacity.
How do you reduce ozone levels?
On Days when High Ozone Levels are Expected, Take these Extra Steps to Reduce Pollution:
Choose a cleaner commute – share a ride to work or use public transportation.
Combine errands and reduce trips.
Avoid excessive idling of your automobile.
Refuel your car in the evening when its cooler.
How is the ozone helpful?
Ozone is a gas in the atmosphere that protects everything living on the Earth from harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays from the Sun. Without the layer of ozone in the atmosphere, it would be very difficult for anything to survive on the surface.
How is the ozone formed?
Stratospheric ozone is natu- rally formed in chemical reactions involving ultraviolet sunlight and oxygen molecules, which make up 21% of the atmosphere. In the first step, sunlight breaks apart one oxygen molecule (O2) to produce two oxygen atoms (2 O) (see Figure Q2-1).
How do we measure the ozone?
Ozone is measured in what are called Dobson units. A Dobson unit of gas is equal to a layer of gas, at the surface of the Earth, with a thickness of one hundredth of a millimeter. The ozone in the atmosphere is about 300 Dobsons.
What are the two places where ozone is located?
Ozone is found in two places in the Earth’s atmosphere. Ozone in the Earth’s upper atmosphere (stratosphere) protects life from harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun. High concentrations of ozone found in the Earth’s lower atmosphere (troposphere) are hazardous to life.
How is ground level ozone harmful to humans?
Ground-level or “bad” ozone is not emitted directly into the air, but is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight. Ground-level ozone also can reduce lung function and inflame the linings of the lungs.