Avalanche breakdown is a phenomenon that occur in both insulating and semiconducting materials. It is a form of electric current multiplication that can allow very large currents within materials which are otherwise good insulators. It is a type of electron avalanche.
What do you mean by Zener breakdown and avalanche breakdown?
Also known as Zener Effect, is like a electrical breakdown condition in a zener diode due to the reverse bias voltage exceeding the breakdown voltage resulting in the tunnelling of electrons from the valence to the conduction band leading to a large number of free minority carriers that suddenly increases the reverse
What happens in avalanche breakdown?
As mentioned, the Avalanche breakdown happens, due to the, well, the avalanche effect. If the reverse bias voltage is very high, then the depletion region widens, and the electric field is quite strong. The minority charge carriers get accelerated in this depletion region, and gain kinetic energy.
What is meant by avalanche effect?
In cryptography, the avalanche effect is the desirable property of cryptographic algorithms, typically block ciphers and cryptographic hash functions, wherein if an input is changed slightly (for example, flipping a single bit), the output changes significantly (e.g., half the output bits flip).