When we discussed earthquake intensity we discussed some of the basic factors that affect the amplitude and duration of shaking produced by an earthquake (earthquake size, distance from fault, site and regional geology, etc.) and as you are aware, the shaking caused by seismic waves can cause damage buildings or cause
How does the depth of the earthquake affect the amount of damage?
Depth: Earthquakes can happen anywhere from at the surface to 700 kilometers below. In general, deeper earthquakes are less damaging because their energy dissipates before it reaches the surface. The recent New Zealand earthquake is thought to have occurred at a more shallow depth than the one last year.
What are three effects of earthquakes?
Earthquake environmental effects are the effects caused by an earthquake on the natural environment, including surface faulting, [[tectonic tsunamis, soil liquefactions, ground resonance, landslides and ground failure, either directly linked to the earthquake source or provoked by the ground shaking.
What are the factors that affect the intensity of an earthquake?
Some factors that affect intensity are the distance away from the epicenter, the depth of the earthquake, the population density of the area affected by the earthquake, the local geology of the are, the type of building construction in the area, and the duration of the shaking.
What are the secondary hazards of earthquakes?
These include ground shaking, landslides, liquefaction, and in some areas, tsunamis. These primary hazards often produce secondary hazards such as ruptured utility lines, hazardous spills, and fires. Buildings can crumble or collapse, trapping people inside and burying streets in rubble.
What are the destructive effects of an earthquake?
Earthquake causes dismantling of buildings, bridge and other structures at or near epicenter.
Rails are folded, underground wires broken.
Earthquakes originate sea waves called Tsunamis.
Earthquakes result in the formation of cracks and fissures on the ground formation.
What are some of the hazards associated with earthquakes?
A large earthquake will always be followed by a sequence of aftershocks.
Landslides and Rockfalls.
Subsidence and Lateral Spreading.
What are the effects of earthquakes on the Earth’s surface?
Effects. Earthquakes often cause dramatic changes at Earth’s surface. In addition to the ground movements, other surface effects include changes in the flow of groundwater, landslides, and mudflows. Earthquakes can do significant damage to buildings, bridges, pipelines, railways, embankments, dams, and other structures
What happened to the people after the earthquake?
It’s basically a smaller earthquake that happens after the main quake, in the same area. If it’s stronger than the first quake, it’s renamed as the main earthquake and the original main quake becomes known as a foreshock. Aftershocks can happen for up to two years after the original earthquake, losing power over time.
What are the factors of an earthquake?
There are seven main factors that determine the impact of an earthquake:
Distance (along the surface and depth)
Severity (measured by the Richter scale)
Development (building quality, financial resources, healthcare, infrastructure, etc.)
What should you do if an earthquake strikes your area?
If you’re indoors, stand against a wall near the center of the building, stand in a doorway, or crawl under heavy furniture (a desk or table). Stay away from windows and outside doors. If you’re outdoors, stay in the open away from power lines or anything that might fall.
How does an undersea earthquake cause a tsunami?
By far, the most destructive tsunamis are generated from large, shallow earthquakes with an epicenter or fault line near or on the ocean floor. These usually occur in regions of the earth characterized by tectonic subduction along tectonic plate boundaries.
Which countries in the world have the most earthquakes?
Indonesia is in a very active seismic zone, also, but by virtue of its larger size than Japan, it has more total earthquakes. Which country has the most earthquakes per unit area? This would probably be Tonga, Fiji, or Indonesia since they are all in extremely active seismic areas along subduction zones.
What are the causes of earthquake?
Earthquakes are usually caused when rock underground suddenly breaks along a fault. This sudden release of energy causes the seismic waves that make the ground shake. When two blocks of rock or two plates are rubbing against each other, they stick a little. When the rocks break, the earthquake occurs.
Which type of seismic wave is the most destructive?
Although surface waves travel more slowly than S-waves, they can be much larger in amplitude and can be the most destructive type of seismic wave. There are two basic kinds of surface waves: Rayleigh waves, also called ground roll, travel as ripples similar to those on the surface of water.
What is the main cause of an earthquake?
Earthquakes are caused by tectonic movements in the Earth’s crust. The main cause is that when tectonic plates collide, one rides over the other, causing orogeny (mountain building), earthquakes and volcanoes. The boundaries between moving plates form the largest fault surfaces on Earth.
What do you do when there is an earthquake?
Ensure you do the following if you are outdoors during an earthquake:
Move away from buildings, streetlights, and utility wires.
Once in the open, stay there until the shaking stops. The greatest danger exists directly outside buildings, at exits and alongside exterior walls.
How does it feel to be in an earthquake?
A large earthquake far away will feel like a gentle bump followed several seconds later by stronger rolling shaking that may feel like sharp shaking for a little while. A small earthquake nearby will feel like a small sharp jolt followed by a few stronger sharp shakes that pass quickly.
Why would surface waves can be more damaging to buildings than P waves or waves?
Because the amplitude of surface waves diminishes less rapidly with distance than the amplitude of P or S waves, surface waves are often the most important component of ground shaking far from the earthquake source, thus can be the most destructive.
What is effect of earthquake?
There are other, secondary effects that are caused by earthquakes, most often a result of strong shaking. A simple example common in many earthquakes are landslides. The shaking causes regions of the rock and soil to slide downhill.
Can you detect earthquakes?
Can you predict earthquakes? No. Neither the USGS nor any other scientists have ever predicted a major earthquake. We do not know how, and we do not expect to know how any time in the foreseeable future.
What are the 5 causes of damage during or after an earthquake?
The ground shaking may also cause landslides, mudslides, and avalanches on steeper hills or mountains, all of which can damage buildings and hurt people. The second main earthquake hazard is ground displacement (ground movement) along a fault. The tsunami was triggered by the Good Friday earthquake.
Why do subduction zones produce the largest earthquakes?
Subduction zones and earthquakes. Subduction zones are plate tectonic boundaries where two plates converge, and one plate is thrust beneath the other. This process results in geohazards, such as earthquakes and volcanoes. Earthquakes are caused by movement over an area of the plate interface called the seismogenic zone