Waves are disturbances that travel through a fluid medium. Several common wave characteristics include frequency, period, wavelength, and amplitude. There are two main type of waves, transverse waves and longitudinal waves.
So, what do all the waves in the electromagnetic spectrum have in common?
The electromagnetic spectrum. Electromagnetic waves carry transverse vibrations in electrical and magnetic fields, not vibrating particles. Electromagnetic waves do not need matter to travel through – they can travel through empty space (a vacuum).
How are the properties of waves related?
These include sound waves, light waves, radio waves, microwaves and others. All kinds of waves have the same fundamental properties of reflection, refraction, diffraction and interference, and all waves have a wavelength, frequency, speed and amplitude.
What are the properties of a wave?
The main properties of waves are defined below.
Amplitude: the height of the wave, measured in meters.
Wavelength: the distance between adjacent crests, measured in meters.
Period: the time it takes for one complete wave to pass a given point, measured in seconds.
What are the three types of waves?
There are three categories:
Longitudinal wave *s – Movement of the particles are parallel to the motion of the energy.
Transverse wave *s – movement of the particles are at right angles (perpendicular) to the motion of the energy.
Surface wave *s – particles travel in a circular motion.
What are the two main types of waves?
Mechanical Waves are waves which propagate through a material medium (solid, liquid, or gas) at a wave speed which depends on the elastic and inertial properties of that medium. There are two basic types of wave motion for mechanical waves: longitudinal waves and transverse waves.
What are the characteristics of an ocean wave?
The speed of all ocean waves is controlled by gravity, wavelength, and water depth. Most characteristics of ocean waves depend on the relationship between their wavelength and water depth. Wavelength determines the size of the orbits of water molecules within a wave, but water depth determines the shape of the orbits.
What does the rest position of a wave represent?
The amplitude of a wave refers to the maximum amount of displacement of a particle on the medium from its rest position. In a sense, the amplitude is the distance from rest to crest. Similarly, the amplitude can be measured from the rest position to the trough position.
What are the characteristics of a sound wave?
Sound waves are often simplified to a description in terms of sinusoidal plane waves, which are characterized by these generic properties:
Frequency, or its inverse, wavelength.
Amplitude, sound pressure or Intensity.
Speed of sound.
What are earthquake waves called?
Earthquakes radiate seismic energy as both body and surface waves. Traveling through the interior of the earth, body waves arrive before the surface waves emitted by an earthquake. These waves are of a higher frequency than surface waves. The first kind of body wave is the P wave or primary wave.
What are 3 ways that waves interact with each other?
Three ways that waves may interact with matter are reflection, refraction, and diffraction.
How can waves be used?
Radio waves are used to transmit television and radio programmes. Television uses higher frequencies than radio. A radio programme receiver does not need to be directly in view of the transmitter to receive programme signals.
What is carried by a wave?
Light, heat, radio, and similar types of energy are carried by a variety of waves in the ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM. Some energy waves need a medium, such as water or air, through which to travel. The medium moves back and forth as waves carry energy through it, but it does not actually travel along with the wave.
What are the two main factors that affect the speed of sound?
In air: Wind can increase or decrease the speed, and can even push sound waves sideways. Air density affects it. Temperature, pressure, humidity and gas mixture can each affect the density. In liquid: The speed of sound is affected by density and viscosity.
Which type of electromagnetic wave has the most energy?
The Electromagnetic spectrum lists the most powerful EMR, gamma rays, to the least powerful EMR, radio waves. In addition, the highest energy waves (gamma, x-ray) have the shortest wavelengths. The lowest energy waves, radio waves, have longest wavelengths.
Do all waves carry energy?
‘Wave’ is a common term for a number of different ways in which energy is transferred: In electromagnetic waves, energy is transferred through vibrations of electric and magnetic fields. In sound waves, energy is transferred through vibration of air particles or particles of a solid through which the sound travels.
How is energy transferred in a wave?
Waves can transfer energy over distance without moving matter the entire distance. For example, an ocean wave can travel many kilometers without the water itself moving many kilometers. The water moves up and down—a motion known as a disturbance. It is the disturbance that travels in a wave, transferring energy.
How is the amplitude of a wave related to its energy?
The amount of energy carried by a wave is related to the amplitude of the wave. A high energy wave is characterized by a high amplitude; a low energy wave is characterized by a low amplitude. Putting a lot of energy into a transverse pulse will not effect the wavelength, the frequency or the speed of the pulse.
Which type of electromagnetic radiation has the most energy?
The different types of radiation are defined by the the amount of energy found in the photons. Radio waves have photons with low energies, microwave photons have a little more energy than radio waves, infrared photons have still more, then visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, and, the most energetic of all, gamma-rays.
What is the medium of the wave?
In the case of a water wave in the ocean, the medium through which the wave travels is the ocean water. In the case of a sound wave moving from the church choir to the pews, the medium through which the sound wave travels is the air in the room.
How longitudinal and transverse waves are alike and how they are different?
For transverse waves, the waves move in perpendicular direction to the source of vibration. For longitudinal waves, the waves move in parallel direction to the source of vibration . They are similar in the sense that energy is transferred in the form of waves.
What properties of waves are the same for light and sound?
Sound travels as longitudinal waves and needs to travel through a solid, liquid or gas: it cannot travel through a vacuum. Light and sound can be reflected and refracted, just like water waves. Light and sound can also be diffracted, just like water waves, but diffraction in light is less obvious than in sound.
What is the unit of frequency for waves?
Wavelength is also measured in metres (m) – it is a length after all. The frequency, f, of a wave is the number of waves passing a point in a certain time. We normally use a time of one second, so this gives frequency the unit hertz (Hz), since one hertz is equal to one wave per second.