Nucleic acids are the main information-carrying molecules of the cell, and, by directing the process of protein synthesis, they determine the inherited characteristics of every living thing. The two main classes of nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).
In this manner, what are the 4 types of nucleic acids?
The two main types of nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). DNA is the genetic material found in all living organisms, ranging from single-celled bacteria to multicellular mammals. It is found in the nucleus of eukaryotes and in the chloroplasts and mitochondria.
What is unique about nucleic acids?
Nucleic acids are the molecules that code the genetic information of organisms. The two nucleic acids used in the repair, reproduction and protein synthesis are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, shown) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).
What are the polymers of nucleic acids?
They are composed of nucleotides, which are monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. If the sugar is a compound ribose, the polymer is RNA (ribonucleic acid); if the sugar is derived from ribose as deoxyribose, the polymer is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
What is the main function of a nucleic acid?
Nucleic acids are important because they make up genetic information in living things. There are two types of nucleic acid and they are DNA and RNA. DNA is the basic instructions for living things. It is passed down from parent to offspring and is found in the nucleus of the cell.
What is the basic structure of nucleic acids?
In DNA double helix, the two strands of DNA are held together by hydrogen bonds. The nucleotides on one strand base pairs with the nucleotide on the other strand. The secondary structure is responsible for the shape that the nucleic acid assumes. The bases in the DNA are classified as purines and pyrimidines.
What are the elements of nucleic acids?
Nucleic acids also typically contain phosphorous, and nitrogen plays an important structural role in nucleic acids and proteins. The proteins, being made up a diverse set of amino acids, have, in addition to carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, the elements sulfur and selenium.
What is the use of nucleic acids?
The two main types of nucleic acids in your body are called deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA, and ribonucleic acid, RNA. There are several sub-types of RNA, including messenger RNA, mRNA, transfer RNA, tRNA, and ribosomal RNA, rRNA. DNA stores your genetic information in the nucleus of your cells.
What is a nucleic acid made up of?
All nucleic acids are made up of the same building blocks (monomers). Chemists call the monomers “nucleotides.” The five pieces are uracil, cytosine, thymine, adenine, and guanine.
What is an example of a nucleic acid?
There are five chief types of components in nucleic acids: cytosine, guanine, thymine, uracil, and adenine. Whether the acid contains uracil or thymine determines whether it is DNA (thymine) or RNA (uracil). Deoxyribonucleic acid, also known as DNA, is a well-known component in genetics.
What are the different classes of nucleic acid?
Nucleic acids are divided into classes on the basis of the sugar used to form the nucleotides. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is built on a b-D-ribofuranose ring. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contains a modified ribofuranose in which the -OH group on the second carbon atom has been removed, as shown in the fiugre below.
What are the features of a nucleotide?
Nucleotides have three characteristic components: (1) a nitrogenous base, (2) a pentose, and (3) a phosphate (Fig. 12-la). The nitrogenous bases are derivatives of two parent compounds, pyrimidine and purine (Fig. 12-lb). The bases and pentoses found in the common nucleotides are heterocyclic compounds.
What are the basic building blocks of a lipid?
The building blocks of lipids are one glycerol molecule and at least one fatty acid, with a maximum of three fatty acids. Glycerol is a sugar alcohol with three OH groups. It acts as a backbone for fatty acids to bond. Fatty acids are made up of a long hydrocarbon with carboxyl group, which is represented as COOH.
What is the chemical structural backbone of a nucleic acid?
A sugar-phosphate backbone (alternating grey-dark grey) joins together nucleotides in a DNA sequence. The sugar-phosphate backbone forms the structural framework of nucleic acids, including DNA and RNA. This backbone is composed of alternating sugar and phosphate groups, and defines directionality of the molecule.
What are the characteristics of carbohydrates?
Chemical Structure. A carbohydrate is a simple sugar. Its basic structure is composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, with generally twice the hydrogen as carbon and oxygen. In its simplest form, a carbohydrate is a chain of sugar molecules called monosaccharides.
Is ATP made of nucleic acids?
Nucleic acids are long chains of monomers (nucleotides) that function as storage molecules in a cell. Nucleotides are composed of sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. ATP, DNA and RNA are all examples of nucleic acids.
What are the three main parts of a nucleotide?
Both deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are made up of nucleotides which consist of three parts:
Nitrogenous Base. Purines and pyrimidines are the two categories of nitrogenous bases.
Pentose Sugar. In DNA, the sugar is 2′-deoxyribose.
Phosphate Group. A single phosphate group is PO43-.
What are the building blocks of DNA?
DNA is made of chemical building blocks called nucleotides. These building blocks are made of three parts: a phosphate group, a sugar group and one of four types of nitrogen bases. To form a strand of DNA, nucleotides are linked into chains, with the phosphate and sugar groups alternating.
What foods are nucleic acids found in?
Foods containing high levels of what are known as “purines” usually also contain high levels of nucleic acids. These foods include fish, organ meats (e.g., liver), and certain vegetables (beans, asparagus, and mushrooms). High-RNA foods also include superfoods such as chlorella, spirulina, and nutritional yeast.
How are proteins and nucleic acids are related?
The sequence of the codons in nucleic acids determines the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each codon is composed of three nucleotides (nitrogen bases), and codes for a particular amino acid (or stop codon). The sequence of amino acids determines the structure of a protein, which determines its function.
What are the main characteristics of proteins?
The sequence of amino acids in a protein determines its shape, which in turn determines its function. The raw sequence of amino acids is known as its primary structure. However, when a molecule is as large as proteins tend to be, it will interact with itself to take on a specific shape.
What are nucleic acids used for in biology?
Like many biological molecules nucleic acids are polymers, long molecules formed of repeating units. With nucleic acids, the repeating unit is the nucleotide. A nucleotide consists of a five carbon sugar, a nitrogen containing base and a phosphate group.
What is the basic structure of a DNA molecule?
DNA structure. DNA is made up of molecules called nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains a phosphate group, a sugar group and a nitrogen base. The four types of nitrogen bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C).
What distinguishes nucleic acids from other macromolecules?
– Nucleic acids store and transmit genetic information that makes them different from other macromolecules. – Nucleic acids contain ribose and deoxyribose sugar connected with bases. – Nucleotides are joined by covalent bonds called Phosphodiester.