Physical Characteristics. Physical characteristics that can be applied to urine include color, turbidity (transparency), smell (odor), pH (acidity – alkalinity) and density.
Also, what does normal urine consist of?
About 91-96% of urine consists of water. Urine also contains an assortment of inorganic salts and organic compounds, including proteins, hormones, and a wide range of metabolites, varying by what is introduced into the body.
What is the odor of normal urine?
Normal urine is clear and has a straw-yellow color. While the odor of urine can vary somewhat, in most cases, it does not have a strong smell. With dehydration, the urine is more concentrated and may have a stronger ammonia scent than normal.
What is a normal component of urine?
Urine is an aqueous solution of greater than 95% water, with a minimum of these remaining constituents, in order of decreasing concentration:
Urea 9.3 g/L.
Chloride 1.87 g/L.
Sodium 1.17 g/L.
Potassium 0.750 g/L.
Creatinine 0.670 g/L .
What is the normal urine output per hour?
The normal range for 24-hour urine volume is 800 to 2000 milliliters per day (with a normal fluid intake of about 2 liters per day). Oliguria is urine output < 500 mL in 24 h (0.5 mL/kg/h) in an adult.
What are the abnormal components of urine?
The following are some of the abnormal constituents of urine and some possible causes.
Albumin. Albumin is a type of protein, which is a normal component of plasma—the fluid component of blood.
White blood cells.
What is the normal output of urine?
The normal range of urine output is 800 to 2,000 milliliters per day if you have a normal fluid intake of about 2 liters per day.
How much urine do we typically produce in a day?
The normal range for 24-hour urine volume is 800 to 2,000 milliliters per day (with a normal fluid intake of about 2 liters per day). The examples above are common measurements for results of these tests. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories.
What causes the color of urine samples?
Normal urine color ranges from pale yellow to deep amber — the result of a pigment called urochrome and how diluted or concentrated the urine is. Pigments and other compounds in certain foods and medications can change your urine color.
What substances should not be found in urine?
The biochemicals found in urine are predominately the end-products of the nitrogen metabolism process. These include urea, uric acid, and creatinine. Other components of urine include sodium chloride (common salt), and over 100 other substances that are usually present, but only in trace (i.e. very small) quantities.
What does inability to concentrate urine mean?
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is an inability to concentrate urine due to impaired renal tubule response to vasopressin (ADH), which leads to excretion of large amounts of dilute urine. It can be inherited or occur secondary to conditions that impair renal concentrating ability.
What is it called to urinate?
Urination, also called Micturition, the process of excreting urine from the urinary bladder. Nerve centres for the control of urination are located in the spinal cord, the brainstem, and the cerebral cortex (the outer substance of the large upper portion of the brain).
Is urine basic or acidic?
Depending on the person’s acid-base status, the pH of urine may range from 4.5 to 8. Secretion of an acid or alkaline urine by the kidneys is one of the most important mechanisms the body uses to maintain a constant body pH. A highly acidic urine pH occurs in: Acidosis.
How is the amount of urine produced is regulated?
The amount of urine produced depends on the amount of excess water and dissolved wastes present in the body. Some other factors such as habitat of an organism and hormone such as Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) also regulates the amount of urine produced.
Is it normal for protein to be present in the urine?
Normally, the kidneys filter urine from the blood but retain protein, so there is not extensive loss of protein into the urine. Protein may be present in the urine because of acute inflammation or kidney stone disease, or as a sign of kidney damage.
Can you drink your urine?
A healthy person’s urine is about 95 percent water and sterile, so in the short term it’s safe to drink and does replenish lost water. But the other 5 percent of urine comprises a diverse collection of waste products, including nitrogen, potassium, and calcium—and too much of these can cause problems.
What is not normally found in urine?
Glucose is the type of sugar found in blood. Normally there is very little or no glucose in urine. When the blood sugar level is very high, as in uncontrolled diabetes, the sugar spills over into the urine. Glucose can also be found in urine when the kidneys are damaged or diseased.
What is the formation of urine?
Urine is formed in the kidneys through a filtration of blood. The urine is then passed through the ureters to the bladder, where it is stored. During urination, the urine is passed from the bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.
What does it mean when there is sugar in your urine?
Diabetes is the most common cause of elevated glucose levels. Elevated levels of glucose in urine may also be a result of renal glycosuria. This is a rare condition in which the kidneys release glucose into the urine. Renal glycosuria can cause urine glucose levels to be high even if blood glucose levels are normal.
Is uric acid in urine?
Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys, where it passes out in urine. If your body produces too much uric acid or does not remove enough of it, you may get sick. A high level of uric acid in the body is called hyperuricemia and it can lead to gout or kidney damage.
What does it mean when your urine smells like ammonia?
When urine begins to smell like ammonia, it usually means one of two things. First, it could be that you are a bit dehydrated and therefore your urine is more concentrated. All urine has ammonia which is a normal product of the metabolism of protein. Another possibility is that your urine is infected with a bacteria.
Why the body does not excrete glucose and how this is achieved by the kidney?
The kidneys then reabsorb all of the glucose and as much water and salt as the body needs, putting them back into the blood. This leaves some water and salt, and all of the urea, which is now called urine. The urine passes from the kidneys to the bladder, where it is stored prior to being excreted from the body.
What factors affect urine formation?
The formation of urine includes three renal processes: (1) glomerular filtration, (2) tubular reabsorption of filtrate and (3) tubular secretion. Any factors that affect these three processes of urine formation will influence the urine volume and components in the urine (Figure 1).
What is the percentage composition of urine?
“Urine is an aqueous solution of greater than 95% water, with the remaining constituents, in order of decreasing concentration urea 9.3 g/L, chloride 1.87 g/L, sodium 1.17 g/L, potassium 0.750 g/L, creatinine 0.670 g/L and other dissolved ions, inorganic and organic compounds.”