Cholera is an infectious disease that causes severe watery diarrhea, which can lead to dehydration and even death if untreated. It is caused by eating food or drinking water contaminated with a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae.
Who does cholera affect?
Cholera is caused by a number of types of Vibrio cholerae, with some types producing more severe disease than others. It is spread mostly by unsafe water and unsafe food that has been contaminated with human feces containing the bacteria. Undercooked seafood is a common source. Humans are the only animal affected.
What countries are affected by cholera?
Areas affected by cholera epidemics. In 2015, cholera outbreaks were reported in several African countries notably in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, and Tanzania. The outbreak in DRC affected 32 districts.
How does cholera work in the body?
It is caused by eating food, or drinking water, contaminated by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Inside the small intestine, V. cholerae attaches to the intestinal wall and starts producing cholera toxin. The toxin enters intestinal cells, causing them to release water and ions, including sodium and chloride ions.
What causes the disease tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis is caused by bacteria that spread from person to person through microscopic droplets released into the air. This can happen when someone with the untreated, active form of tuberculosis coughs, speaks, sneezes, spits, laughs or sings. Although tuberculosis is contagious, it’s not easy to catch.