What are the causes and symptoms of marasmus?

Causes of marasmus. Nutrient deficiency is the main cause of marasmus. It occurs in children that don’t ingest enough protein, calories, carbohydrates, and other important nutrients. This is usually due to poverty and a scarcity of food.

What is the main difference between kwashiorkor and marasmus?

A child with marasmus looks emaciated. It can be distinguished from kwashiorkor in that kwashiorkor is protein deficiency with adequate energy intake whereas marasmus is inadequate energy intake in all forms, including protein.

What are the signs and symptoms of marasmus?

Other symptoms of marasmus include:

  • Thin face.
  • Ribs and shoulders clearly visible through the skin.
  • Very loose skin that sometimes hangs in folds in the upper arms, thighs, and buttocks.
  • Persistent dizziness.
  • Sunken eyes.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Active, alert, or irritable behavior.
  • Frequent dehydration.
  • What are the main causes of Anaemia?

    Iron deficiency anaemia occurs when the body doesn’t have enough iron, leading to the decreased production of red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen around the body. A lack of iron can be caused by several factors. Some of the most common causes of iron deficiency anaemia are outlined below.

    What is the treatment of marasmus?

    Patients with marasmus should be isolated from other patients, especially children with infections. Treatment areas should be as warm as possible, and bathing should be avoided to limit hypothermia. Therefore, when possible, the hospital structure is best adapted for the treatment of severe malnutrition.

    What is PEM?

    The term protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) applies to a group of related disorders that include marasmus, kwashiorkor (see the images below), and intermediate states of marasmus-kwashiorkor. The term marasmus is derived from the Greek word marasmos, which means withering or wasting.

    What are the nutritional problems?

    The nutritional problems of developing countries are conditioned by poverty, near exclusive reliance on plant sources of nutrients, and high rates of infections. Common deficiency diseases include protein-energy malnutrition, nutritional anemias, vitamin A deficiency, iodine deficiency, and possibly others.

    What are the symptoms of night blindness?

    Night blindness caused by nearsightedness, cataracts, or vitamin A deficiency is treatable. Corrective lenses, such as eyeglasses or contacts, can improve nearsighted vision both during the day and at night. Let your doctor know if you still have trouble seeing in dim light even with corrective lenses.

    What vitamin deficiency causes kwashiorkor?

    Kwashiorkor is a severe form of malnutrition, caused by a deficiency in dietary protein. The extreme lack of protein causes an osmotic imbalance in the gastro-intestinal system causing swelling of the gut diagnosed as an edema or retention of water.

    What causes beri beri?

    Beriberi is a disease caused by a vitamin B-1 deficiency, also known as thiamine deficiency. There are two types of the disease: wet beriberi and dry beriberi. Wet beriberi affects the heart and circulatory system. In extreme cases, wet beriberi can cause heart failure.

    What is the cause of pellagra?

    Chronic alcoholism can also cause poor absorption which combines with a diet already low in niacin and tryptophan to produce pellagra. Hartnup disease is a genetic disorder that reduces tryptophan absorption, leading to pellagra. Alterations in protein metabolism may also produce pellagra-like symptoms.

    What is the cause of scurvy?

    Scurvy is a disease caused by severe and chronic vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency. Good sources of dietary vitamin C include citrus fruits and green vegetables.

    What is the definition of hypertension?

    Hypertension. Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. High blood pressure usually does not cause symptoms.

    What is the Marasmic kwashiorkor?

    marasmic kwashiorkor. [m?raz′mik] Etymology: Gk, marasmos, a wasting; Afr. a malnutrition disease, primarily of children, resulting from the deficiency of both calories and protein. The condition is characterized by severe tissue wasting, dehydration, loss of subcutaneous fat, lethargy, and growth retardation.

    What is protein energy malnutrition?

    Protein–energy malnutrition (PEM) refers to a form of malnutrition which is defined as a range of pathological conditions arising from coincident lack of protein and/or energy in varying proportions.The condition vary in forms ranging from mild through moderate to severe degrees.

    How do you prevent kwashiorkor?

    To prevent kwashiorkor, make sure the diet has enough carbohydrates, fat (at least 10% of total calories), and protein (12% of total calories).

    What is a common sign in a child with kwashiorkor?

    Kwashiorkor is a severe form of malnutrition. It’s most common in some developing regions of the world where babies and children have a diet that lacks protein and other essential nutrients. The main sign of kwashiorkor is too much fluid in the body’s tissues, which causes swelling under the skin (oedema).

    How do you prevent rickets?

    The best way to prevent rickets is to eat a diet that includes adequate amounts of calcium, phosphorous, and vitamin D. People with kidney disorders should have their calcium and phosphate levels monitored on a regular basis by their doctors. Rickets can also be prevented with moderate sun exposure.

    Where is kwashiorkor most common in the world and why?

    Kwashiorkor is most prevalent in overpopulated areas of the world in underdeveloped and developing countries, particularly in sections of Africa, Central and South America, and South Asia. Kwashiorkor is very rare in the United States, but does occur and is usually a sign of child abuse and neglect.

    Why does your stomach bloat when you re starving?

    Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism’s life. The bloated stomach, as seen in the adjacent picture, represents a form of malnutrition called kwashiorkor which is caused by insufficient protein despite a sufficient caloric intake.

    What are the diseases caused due to malnutrition?

    Keep reading for common malnutrition diseases, meaning those that are caused by malnutrition.

  • COMMON MALNUTRITION DISEASES: SCURVY. Scurvy is making a comeback, after being considered an illness of the past – Photo Credit: Wikipedia.
  • COMMON MALNUTRITION DISEASES: RICKETS.
  • COMMON MALNUTRITION DISEASES: BERIBERI.
  • What is the main cause of rickets?

    Nutritional rickets, also called osteomalacia, is a condition caused by vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for the normal formation of bones and teeth and necessary for the appropriate absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the bowels.