What are the causes and effects of ozone depletion?

Effects of ozone layer depletion. Skin Cancer: exposure to UV rays from sun can lead to increased risk for developing of several types of skin cancers. Malignant melanoma, basal and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common cancers caused by exposure to UV rays. Eye Damage: UV rays are harmful for our eyes too.

Beside this, what are the main causes of the depletion of the ozone layer?

Ozone depletion occurs when chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons—gases formerly found in aerosol spray cans and refrigerants—are released into the atmosphere (see details below). CFCs and halons cause chemical reactions that break down ozone molecules, reducing ozone’s ultraviolet radiation-absorbing capacity.

What are the main causes of ozone depletion?

The main cause of ozone depletion and the ozone hole is man-made chemicals, especially man-made halocarbon refrigerants, solvents, propellants, and foam-blowing agents (chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs), HCFCs, halons), referred to as ozone-depleting substances (ODS).

What is the causes of ozone depletion?

When CFCs reach the upper atmosphere they are first degraded by the very high energy of UV (ultra-violet) radiation. Degradation of CFC leaves a free chlorine atom. The basic cause of ozone layer depletion is that this chlorine atom then breaks up ozone molecules. Ozone then disappears.

What is the cause and effect of ozone depletion?

Causes of Ozone Hole. The destruction of ozone layer is caused by one factor only which is Cholorofluorocarbons. The main cause of the ozone hole was found to be gases that contained Cholorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Halons and Freons. These affect the atoms of ozone and cause ozone depletion.

What are the effect of ozone layer depletion?

The Connection between Ozone Layer Depletion and UVB Radiation. Reduced ozone levels as a result of ozone depletion. Stratospheric ozone is constantly being created and destroyed through natural cycles. The ozone layer protects the Earth against most UVB coming from the sun.

What do you mean by depletion?

Depletion is an accounting and tax concept used most often in mining, timber, petroleum, or other similar industries. The depletion deduction allows an owner or operator to account for the reduction of a product’s reserves.

How the ozone layer is formed?

Stratospheric ozone is formed naturally by chemical reactions involving solar ultraviolet radiation (sunlight) and oxygen molecules, which make up 21% of the atmosphere. In the first step, solar ultraviolet radiation breaks apart one oxygen molecule (O2) to produce two oxygen atoms (2 O) (see Figure Q2-1).

What does ozone depletion mean?

Ozone depletion describes two distinct but related phenomena observed since the late 1970s: a steady decline of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth’s stratosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth’s polar regions.

What is the importance of the ozone layer?

Ozone is a gas in the atmosphere that protects everything living on the Earth from harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays from the Sun. Without the layer of ozone in the atmosphere, it would be very difficult for anything to survive on the surface.

What do you mean by ozone depletion?

Ozone layer depletion, is simply the wearing out (reduction) of the amount of ozone in the stratosphere. Unlike pollution, which has many types and causes, Ozone depletion has been pinned down to one major human activity. Depletion begins when CFC’s get into the stratosphere.

What is the purpose of the Montreal Protocol?

The Montreal Protocol, finalized in 1987, is a global agreement to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by phasing out the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS).

Which refrigerant is chlorine free?

ozone depletion potential (ODP) and are the most harmful to stratospheric ozone. Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants contain: Hydrogen, Fluorine, and Carbon. R-134a, also known as HFC-134a, a chlorine-free refrigerant.

What is smog made up of?

Photochemical smog is the chemical reaction of sunlight, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, which leaves airborne particles and ground-level ozone. This noxious mixture of air pollutants may include the following: Aldehydes.

How is the ozone layer depleted?

When chlorine and bromine atoms come into contact with ozone in the stratosphere, they destroy ozone molecules. One chlorine atom can destroy over 100,000 ozone molecules before it is removed from the stratosphere. These compounds contribute to ozone depletion, and are called ozone-depleting substances (ODS.

What are the harmful effects of air pollution?

Long-term health effects can include chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys. Continual exposure to air pollution affects the lungs of growing children and may aggravate or complicate medical conditions in the elderly.

What is the hole in the ozone layer?

The ozone hole is not technically a “hole” where no ozone is present, but is actually a region of exceptionally depleted ozone in the stratosphere over the Antarctic that happens at the beginning of Southern Hemisphere spring (August–October).

How do CFCS react with ozone?

When ultraviolet light waves (UV) strike CFC* (CFCl3) molecules in the upper atmosphere, a carbon-chlorine bond breaks, producing a chlorine (Cl) atom. The chlorine atom then reacts with an ozone (O3) molecule breaking it apart and so destroying the ozone.

What are the main causes of ozone depletion?

The main cause of ozone depletion and the ozone hole is man-made chemicals, especially man-made halocarbon refrigerants, solvents, propellants, and foam-blowing agents (chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs), HCFCs, halons), referred to as ozone-depleting substances (ODS).

How does smog affect us?

These include: Coughing and throat or chest irritation: High levels of ozone can irritate your respiratory system, generally lasting for a few hours after you’ve been exposed to smog. However, ozone can continue to harm your lungs even after symptoms disappear. This is because of the effects of ozone on lung function.

What are the causes of depletion of ozone layer?

Ozone depletion occurs when chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons—gases formerly found in aerosol spray cans and refrigerants—are released into the atmosphere (see details below). CFCs and halons cause chemical reactions that break down ozone molecules, reducing ozone’s ultraviolet radiation-absorbing capacity.

Why is the hole in the ozone a concern?

Today, there is widespread concern that the ozone layer is deteriorating due to the release of pollution containing the chemicals chlorine and bromine. Such deterioration allows large amounts of ultraviolet B rays to reach Earth, which can cause skin cancer and cataracts in humans and harm animals as well.

Why is there a hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica?

The severe depletion of the Antarctic ozone layer known as the “ozone hole” occurs because of the special atmospheric and chemical conditions that exist there and nowhere else on the globe. The very low winter temperatures in the Antarctic stratosphere cause polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) to form.