What are the advantages of database normalization?

The benefits of normalization include: Searching, sorting, and creating indexes is faster, since tables are narrower, and more rows fit on a data page. You usually have fewer indexes per table, so data modification commands are faster. Fewer null values and less redundant data, making your database more compact.

Similarly, you may ask, why would you normalize a database?

In other words, the goal of data normalization is to reduce and even eliminate data redundancy, an important consideration for application developers because it is incredibly difficult to stores objects in a relational database that maintains the same information in several places.

What does it mean to normalize a database?

(1) In relational database design, the process of organizing data to minimize redundancy. Normalization usually involves dividing a database into two or more tables and defining relationships between the tables.

What do you mean by normalization?

Database normalization is typically a refinement process after the initial exercise of identifying the data objects that should be in the relational database, identifying their relationships and defining the tables required and the columns within each table.

Why do we need denormalization?

Denormalization is a strategy used on a previously-normalized database to increase performance. The idea behind it is to add redundant data where we think it will help us the most. We can use extra attributes in an existing table, add new tables, or even create instances of existing tables.

What is a referential integrity in a database?

Referential integrity (RI) is a relational database concept, which states that table relationships must always be consistent. In other words, any foreign key field must agree with the primary key that is referenced by the foreign key.

Why foreign key is called referential integrity?

Referential integrity is a property of data stating references within it are valid. For referential integrity to hold in a relational database, any column in a base table that is declared a foreign key can contain either a null value, or only values from a parent table’s primary key or a candidate key.

What do you mean by cursor in SQL?

A cursor is a temporary work area created in the system memory when a SQL statement is executed. A cursor contains information on a select statement and the rows of data accessed by it. This temporary work area is used to store the data retrieved from the database, and manipulate this data.

What is the purpose of the cursor?

At its simplest form a cursor is used to iterate over rows of a result set. Imagine a row as an object inside a list. With a cursor you have access to just that row. If you’re familiar with a foreach loop in other coding languages you are accomplishing a lot of the same function.

What is the use of cursor?

Cursor might used for retrieving data row by row basis.its act like a looping statement(ie while or for loop). To use cursors in SQL procedures, you need to do the following: 1.Declare a cursor that defines a result set. 2.Open the cursor to establish the result set.

What is the use of cursor in database?

In computer science, a database cursor is a control structure that enables traversal over the records in a database. Cursors facilitate subsequent processing in conjunction with the traversal, such as retrieval, addition and removal of database records. A cursor can be viewed as a pointer to one row in a set of rows.

How does the cursor work?

The KEYSET cursor is implemented by copying primary key data into tempdb. As the cursor moves through the result set, the cursor will see modifications to the underlying data but it will not see new rows. The order of the cursor data is also maintained. The KEYSET cursor is the default cursor type.

What is the function of SQL?

A user-defined function is a Transact-SQL or common language runtime (CLR) routine that accepts parameters, performs an action, such as a complex calculation, and returns the result of that action as a value. The return value can either be a scalar (single) value or a table.

What is the use of cursor in Oracle?

Oracle creates a memory area, known as the context area, for processing an SQL statement, which contains all the information needed for processing the statement; for example, the number of rows processed, etc. A cursor is a pointer to this context area. PL/SQL controls the context area through a cursor.

What is the use of ref cursor in Oracle?

Using REF CURSOR s is one of the most powerful, flexible, and scalable ways to return query results from an Oracle Database to a client application. A REF CURSOR is a PL/SQL data type whose value is the memory address of a query work area on the database. A REF CURSOR refers to a memory address on the database.

What is a open cursor in Oracle?

For every SQL statement execution in Oracle Database, certain area in the memory is allocated. Oracle PL/SQL allows you to name this area. This private SQL area is called context area or cursor. For example, if the value of OPEN_CURSORS is set to 1000, then each session can have up to 1000 cursors open at one time.

What is a cursor in Oracle database?

From Oracle FAQ. A cursor is a pointer used to fetch rows from a result set. One can think of a cursor as a data structure that describes the results returned from a SQL SELECT statement. One of the variables in this structure is a pointer to the next record to be fetched from the query results.

What is trigger in SQL and how to use?

A trigger is a special type of stored procedure that automatically executes when an event occurs in the database server. DML triggers execute when a user tries to modify data through a data manipulation language (DML) event. DML events are INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statements on a table or view.

What is the use of index in SQL?

An index is used to speed up the performance of queries. It does this by reducing the number of database data pages that have to be visited/scanned. In SQL Server, a clustered index determines the physical order of data in a table. There can be only one clustered index per table (the clustered index IS the table).

Is a primary key and index?

The primary key column cannot allow NULL values. When you create a UNIQUE constraint, a unique nonclustered index is created to enforce a UNIQUE constraint by default. You can specify a unique clustered index if a clustered index on the table does not already exist.

How many clustered and non clustered index can be applied to a table?

Number of Clustered indexes in SQL 2005 is one and 249 non clustered indexes, altogether 250 indexes for a table in SQL Server 2005. In SQL Server 2008, the maximum is 1000. The answer IS one. Each table can only have one in SQL Server.

Is the primary key a clustered index?

A table without a clustered index is called a heap. A primary key is a unique index that is clustered by default. By default means that when you create a primary key, if the table is not clustered yet, the primary key will be created as a clustered unique index. Unless you explicitly specify the nonclustered option.

Why can we have only one clustered index on a table?

A clustered index sorts and stores the data rows in the table based on the index key values. Therefore only one clustered index can be created on each table because the data rows themselves can only be sorted in one order.

What are the benefits of normalization?

The benefits of normalization include:

  • Searching, sorting, and creating indexes is faster, since tables are narrower, and more rows fit on a data page.
  • You usually have more tables.
  • Index searching is often faster, since indexes tend to be narrower and shorter.
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